06 Mei 2009
In 2004, the width is about 740 km ² and population of 8,792,000 inhabitants . Jakarta metropolitan Jabotabek together with approximately 23 million people is the largest metropolitan area in India or the world order in the sixth. Jabotabek area has now integrated with the Bandung Raya, where megapolis Jabotabek-Bandung Raya covers about 30 million people, a place in this region megapolis second world, after Tokyo megapolis.
At this time the entrance to the Jakarta International Soekarno-Hatta Airport and Port of Tanjung Priok. Since 2004 under the leadership of Governor Sutiyoso, Jakarta has integrated transportation, known as Transjakarta. In addition to the state palace, Jakarta is also the headquarters of Bank Indonesia and the Stock Exchange first Indonesia.Jakarta is known as one of the port of Sunda Kingdom, located in Ciliwung River estuary. Capital of the Kingdom of Sunda, known as Dayeuh or Pakuan Pajajaran Pajajaran (now Bogor) can be from the port of Sunda Kalapa two-day trip. According to the sources of Portuguese, Sunda Kalapa is one of the ports other than port of Sunda Kingdom of Banten, helter, Cigede, Tamgara and Cimanuk. Sunda Kalapa that in this text called Kalapa port is considered the most important because it can go from the capital of the kingdom which is called by the name Dayo (in modern language Sunda: Dayeuh which means the capital city) in the tempo of two days.  Kingdom of Sunda itself is a continuation of Tarumanagara century in the kingdom to-5 so that the port is estimated to have been there since 5-th century and is the estimated capital Tarumanagara called Sundapura.
In the 12-century, the port is known as the busy port of pepper. Foreign ships that came from China, Japan, South India, and the Middle East is anchored in the harbor is to bring items such as china, coffee, silk, cloth, perfume, horses, wine, and the pigment to be exchanged with spices spice-trade which is the commodity at that time.
European people first came to Jakarta is the Portuguese. In the century-16, Surawisesa, the king of Sunda help the Portuguese in Malacca to establish a stronghold in the Sunda Kelapa as protection from possible attacks that Cirebon akan secede from the Kingdom of Sunda. Efforts to request assistance to the Portuguese Surawisesa in Malacca is enshrined by the person in the story of Sunda pantun seloka Mundinglaya Dikusumah where Surawisesa diselokakan with the name gelarnya namely Mundinglaya. However, before the fort was done, Cirebon Demak assisted directly in the attack. Sundanese people mention this tragedy because the attack is membungihanguskan city harbor and killed many people there, including the Sunda sahbandar port. Determination Jakarta anniversary date of June 22 is based on the tragedy conquest Sunda Kalapa Fatahillah by the year 1527 and change the name of the city into Jayakarta, which means "victory".
The Dutch came to Jayakarta around the end of the century to 16, after a layover in Banten in the year 1596. In the 1619, led by the VOC Jan Pieterszoon Coen menaklukan Jayakarta and then change its name to Batavia. During kolonialisasi Dutch Batavia city developed into a large and important. (See Batavia). For the development of the city, the Netherlands imported more slaves as workers. Most of them come from Bali, Sulawesi, Maluku, the People's Republic of China, and the Malabar coast, India. This is their community and then establish the Jakarta or known as the Betawi people.
On 9 October 1740, there was unrest in Batavia terbunuhnya 5000 with the Chinese people. With the occurrence of this turmoil, many Chinese people who run out of town and make resistance to the Netherlands. With the completion of Koningsplein (Gambir) in the year 1818, Batavia developed to the south. 1910, the Netherlands to build city parks Menteng, and this region into a new place for the Dutch petinggi replace Molenvliet in the north. In the early 20th century, north of Batavia, Koningspein, and Mester Cornelis (Jatinegara) was integrated into a city.
Colonization by Japan starting in the year 1942 and change the name into Batavia Jakarta for engaging people in World War II. The city is also the site of the Independence Proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia on 17 August 1945 and occupied the sovereignty of the Netherlands until 1949.
Since the declared as the capital, Jakarta population very rapidly due to increased labor needs of governance that is almost all concentrated in Jakarta. Within 5 years the population of more than two. Many of the case settlement and the new middle class developed, such as the Kebayoran Baru, Cempaka Putih, Rawamangun, and Pejompongan. Residential centers also performed independently by various ministries and institutions belonging to other countries (known as the prefix "complex").
During the Soekarno, Jakarta perform large development projects, among others Gelora Bung Karno, Istiqlal Mosque, and the National Monument. During this same axis Sudirman-Thamrin start to be developed as the central business district. Center of the first settlement made by the private developer is Pondok Indah (by PT Pembangunan Jaya) at the end of the decade of 1970s in the area of Jakarta Selatan.Laju development of this ever being tried by the governor Ali Sadikin in the early 1970s with the claim as Jakarta "closed city" for immigrants. This policy can not be neglected and run-time during the next governor's leadership. Until now, Jakarta still have to wrestle with the problems that occur due to population density, such as flooding, congestion, lack of equipment and adequate public transportation.
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05 Maret 2009
This temple was built around the year 850 BC by one of these two men, namely: Rakai lure, the king of the second Mataram dynasty or I Balitung Most Sambu, during Sanjaya dynasty. Not long after, built, this temple began to be abandoned and damaged.
In the year 1733 BC, this temple is found by CA Lons a berkebangsaan Netherlands, and in the year 1855 BC Izerman start to clean and move some rocks and soil from the temple room. Groneman some time and then perform a large-scale destruction and the temple stones are stacked in haphazard Opak along the river. In the 1902-1903 Van ERP maintain that the collapse-prone. In the years 1918-1926, followed by ancient Jawatan (Oudheidkundige Dienst) in the bottom of the PJ Perquin with a more methodical and systematic, as known to the preceding beribu dismantling and transfer of thousands of miles without thinking about the restoration efforts kembali.Pada year 1926 was extended until the end of De Haan hayatnya in 1930. In the year 1931 was replaced by Ir. V.R. van Romondt until the year 1942 and then submitted to the leadership of the renovation and is the son of Indonesia to continue in 1993
Many parts of the temple is renovated, the new stone, because the original stones are stolen or re-used elsewhere. A temple will be renovated only if at least 75% still have the original stone. Therefore, many small temples, the temple was built not only look back and fondasinya only.
Now, this temple is a protected site by UNESCO starting 1991. Among other things this means that the complex is protected and has a special status, eg also in situations of war.
Prambanan is the largest Hindu temples in Southeast Asia, the main building is high 47m.
This temple complex consists of 8 major temple or shrine, and more than 250 small temples.
Three main temple called Trisakti and Hyang be devoted to the Trinity: the crusher Batara Siwa, Wisnu Batara the affairs and Brahma the Creator Batara.
Siwa Temple in the middle, a four room, one room in each direction of the wind. While the first load an image Batara Siwa as three meters, the other three sculpture-statue of smaller size, the statue Durga, the wife or sakti Batara Siwa, Agastya, teachers, and Ganesa, son.
Durga statue is also known as Rara or Lara / Loro Jongrang (slender virgin) by the local people. To be able to see the full article Loro Jonggrang.
Two other temples Batara be devoted to Vishnu, which is facing to the north and one to be Batara Brahma, facing south. In addition there are several other small temples that are to the calf Nandini, vehicle Batara Siwa, the Angsa, vehicle Batara Brahma, and the Garuda, Vishnu Batara vehicle.
And the relief around the edge twenty temples reflect wiracarita Ramayana. Version described here is different from the Ramayana Kakawin Kuna Java, but similar to the Ramayana story is revealed through the oral tradition. In addition, this temple complex is surrounded by more than 250 temples of varying size and called perwara. In the Prambanan temple complex, there is also a museum store historical objects, including stone god Siwa Lingga, as a symbol kesuburun.
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24 Februari 2009
The atmosphere and activities of the market
With panoramanya witness, as if tourists are sightseeing. Jukung-jukung laden with cargo of merchandise vegetables, fruits, fish and all sorts of different needs of households available in the market float. When the sun began to appear gradually also began menyepi market, the traders also began to go to leave the market float to bring the results with satisfaction.
The atmosphere of the market and float the unique characteristic is the thrust of boats large and small buyers find each other and that the seller always berseliweran more shaky here and always played Barito river waves. Market organization does not have a float in the market such as in the mainland, so it does not record how many traders and visitors to the merchant or bersarkan merchandise.
Vendors that sell boating results of the production itself or neighboring hamlet called, while a second hand purchase from the hamlet called for re-sale panyambangan. Keistemewaan this market is still often barter transactions between the traders boating, which is in a language called Banjar bapanduk, something unique and rare.
Tourism is often seen as a charm fantastik, Banjarmasin like the Venice of the East, as both have the potential of river tourism. But both city and nature different cultural background. In Banjarmasin still found in many rivers throughout the house which is called float lanting house, which is always played in the waves roll.
Kuin area is a type of settlement that is located along the river (Waterfront village) which has several tourist attraction such as nature tourism, cultural tourism and cultural tourism. Life of communities living close to the river market float, edge of the river with the traditional architecture. Downstream mudiknya various traditional boat with a rich cargo of interesting attractions for tourists, and even expected to tour the village to be developed so that it can be in forming the image of tourism promotion of South Kalimantan. Still in the same area that tourists can also visit the Masjid Sultan Riau and Makam Raja Pelalawan, Kembang island, islands and island Bakut surprised. Kuin also in carving craft ornaments for the home Banjar.
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17 Februari 2009
Baturaden is a destination in Banyumas regency, Central Java, Indonesia. Baturaden is located in the northern city of Purwokerto in the south slope of Mount Slamet. Baturaden located on the slopes because the mountains make this area has a cool weather and tends to be very cold especially at night. Baturaden is also an area visited by many local tourists, especially on sunday and national holidays. This condition causes a lot of hotel and villa was established here.
Baturaden could be using private and public vehicles. Distance from the town of Purwokerto about 20 km and is 15 minutes with traffic that is not too dense. If you want to use public transport tourists can ride from the city terminal in Purwokerto and down in the terminal lokawisata Baturaden. If you want more practical travelers can use a taxi. If you decide to use a private vehicle, should be careful because the road is uphill with a slope of about 30 degrees.
* Shower Pitu Baturaden
* Shower Telu
* Telaga Sunyi
* Earth Perkemahan
* The Air Panas
* Curug Ceheng
* Wahana Wista Valley Combong
* Combong Valley and War Paint Ball Games
Parks Kaloka Widya Mandala Baturraden or Tourism Education Wanasuka Baturraden a zoo tour as well as a place of education inaugurated by the Head of Regent Regional Level II Banyumas H. Djoko Sudantoko on 17 May 1995. This place never get the achievement Visit Indonesia Decade 1991-2000, Penobatan Anugerah Tour Central Java and Yogyakarta Special Region in Semarang on 23 August 1996.
Kaloka in Taman Widya Mandala Baturraden there are various kinds of animals that come from within and from outside the country such as Australia, Asia and the Netherlands. Such as: Cattle five feet, three feet Goat, Elephant, Beruk (Buing), Irian Farming, python, Kaswari, monkey, Landak, Iguana, Cendrawasih, bats, Kate Ayam, Ayam Mutiara, Orang Utan, Elang Bondol, Rusa.Di this place is also the Museum Animal rare, such as Sumatra tiger, bear Honey, Macan and limb. http://www.baturraden.com/ in to see more information about baturraden Batu Raden is the beauty that radiate from the slopes of Mount Slamet. Location of the tour is only about 15 km from the town of Purwokerto, Central Java, this not only save the pretty panorama of nature, but also stories about people Raden Kamandaka, or Lutung Kasarung familiar enough that people in Indonesia.
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Sources said that about Batur is Lontar Kesmu gods. Lontar Usana Bali and Raja Purana Lontar Batur. Pura Batur mentioned that already have master Kuturan time since the X century until the beginning of XI century. Areal extent and number of pelinggih-pelinggih it is estimated that Penyiwi Pura Batur is the kings who rule in Bali, as well as a Kahyangan Jagat. Pura Batur at the Dewi Danu diistanakan is mentioned in the Lontar Usana Bali translated as follows:
Is Ceritera, occurs in Marga Sari (months to V) the Kresna Force (Tilem) have Betara Pasupati in India are moving Puncak Gunung Most are divided into two, held hands with the left and right and brought to Bali is used as the Son he is sthana Betara Putrajaya (Maha Dewa Hyang) and the top of the mountain that brought the left into the hands of Mount Batur as sthana Betari Danuh, both as it is ulunya island of Bali. Both the Mount is a symbol of this element and Purusa Pradana from Sang Hyang Widhi. Pura Batur is a Hindu place of worship in all people, especially Bali Bali Central, North East and seeking safety in the area of rice field. So that at the time of Puja falls on the trustee to Purnamaning X (kedasa) all the people especially in the all Kelian subak, sedahan-sedahan come to Pura Batur menghaturkan "Suwinih". Likewise in case of disaster pests.
Identification and appeal
Name tourism area Batur is adjusted with the potential of the Mount Batur and Lake Batur. Pura Batur name comes from the name of Mount Batur is one of the Pura Sad Kahyangan in emong by the Village of Batur. Before meletusnya Mount Batur in the year 1917, Pura Batur is located at the foot of Mount Batur Barat Daya.
Due to damage caused by this eruption of Mount Batur, with the Pura Batur villagers moved in place now. Remains of the frozen lava black, vertical tower of Mount Batur, Lake Batur shady turn, is an attraction for every visitor. From Penelokan can look blue Lake Batur and foam-foam waves aside accompany the driver when the boat serves tourists and passengers in every public crossing Kedisan from the Village to Village Trunyan. The fishermen also busy coloring in the fish of Lake Batur fish mujair a result tangkapannya selling in the market in the City of Bangli, Bangli is known so that in the sate mujairnya which is the typical food Bangli regency.
Tourism Regions Batur Batur located in the Village, Kintamani District Sub Regional Level II Bangli. Tourism Regions Batur is located at an altitude of 900 m above the sea surface temperature with air cooling in the packed lunch ahri and cold at night. To reach this location from the capital of Bangli distance 23 km. Tourism can be a vehicle, because the location is the city of Singaraja and Bangli. While the route object, the Tourism Regions Tourism with Batur and Besakih Tampaksiring.
Tourism in the area where parking is available Batur, restaurants, dining, lodging, toilet, school, and the stall-stall snacks and drinks. Public transport facilities and transport crossing also available.
Batur tourism area visited by many foreign tourists and the archipelago. Visit the most prominent of August, in December, while welcoming the New Year and New Year atmosphere. Similarly, on the day-to-day Raya Galungan, Idul Fitri and Christmas, Hari Raya, and often visited by guests from both countries central and guests from abroad.
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05 Februari 2009
TNGR have multiformity, among other flora; nettle (Laportea stimulant), Dedurenan (Aglaea Argentea), Bayur (Pterospermum Javanicum), Beringin (Ficus Benjamina), Cashew-jambuan (Syzygium sp) Keruing (Dipterocarpus Hasseltii), Rerau (D. Imbricatus) , Cemara Mount (Casuarina Junghuniana) Eidelweis (Anaphalis javanica) and several kinds of orchid that is endemic forest Perisstylus Rinjaniensis and P. Lombokensis. While multiformity fauna that is owned by TNGR among others; civet Rinjani (Paradoxurus Hemaprhoditus Rinjanicus), Deer (Muntiacus Muntjak Nainggolani), Lutung Budeng (Trachypithecus Auratus Kohlbruggei), Trenggiling (Manis Javanicus), Cikukua Tanduk bird (Philemon Buceroides Neglectus), Dawah Forest (Ducula Lacernulata Sasakensis), cervix Kepodang Black (Oriolus chinensis Broderipii) and several types of reptilia plus some type of fresh water fish that live on the lake Segara Anak, among others; Mujair and carp.
In the lava mountain (2.800mdpl) there is a crater off the mountain due to eruption of Rinjani (estimated to occur at the time Plistosen <1.8 style="font-weight: bold;">Myths
Gunung Rinjani keep some mystery. One mystery is terbesarnya Dewi Anjani. Dewi Anjani perhaps is direct descendant of King Selaparang results from the marriage of King mahkluk fine with living in a mountain Rinjani rain when he appealed to the area because of the long drought Selaparang kingdom at that time. Because it is so far the community tribe Sasak and Hindu Dharma on the island of Lombok is often perform rituals Mulang Pekelem namely ritual to invoke rain Dewi Anjani sesembahan form with a plate of gold in the all kinds of mahkluk water drowned the way to the lake Segara Anak. Read More ..
27 Januari 2009
According to legend, this temple was built by a Brahmin from a rogue. He is a successful Danghyang Nirartha strengthen the trust of Bali will be the teachings of Hinduism and build Sad Kahyangan on the 16-century. At the time authorities Tanah Lot, Bendesa Beraben, because he was jealous of the followers and start leaving the Danghyang Nirartha. Bendesa Beraben told to leave Danghyang Nirartha Tanah Lot. He menyanggupi and before leaving the Tanah Lot with his strength to move the middle stone Bongkahan beach (not into the sea) and building a temple there. He also change selendangnya a snake temple guards. Snake was still there until now and this scientifically snake species including sea snakes that have characteristics such as the caudate flat fish, black and yellow striped and have a toxic 3 times stronger than cobra snake. End of the legend states that Bendesa Beraben 'end' to pursuivant Danghyang Nirartha.
Pura Tanah Lot
Tanah Lot is a tourism object in Bali, Indonesia. Here are two that are located in the temple on the cobblestone. One is located at the top of the stone bongkahan and one located on the edge similar to the Pura Uluwatu. Pura Tanah Lot is a part of the temple Sad Kahyangan, the quasi-which is a joint-joint Bali island. Pura Tanah Lot temple is a place of worship the sea gods guard the sea.
Tourism land lot located in the Village Beraban Kediri Tabanan District, about 13 km west of Tabanan. To the north of Pura Tanah Lot, there is a temple which is located above the cliffs that stick to the sea. Tebing this temple connect with the land and shaped like a bridge (curve). Tanah Lot is renowned as a place to see the beautiful sunset (sunset), tourist, is usually crowded in the afternoon to see the beauty of the sunset here.
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25 Januari 2009
Bunaken marine park has a 20 point dive (Dive spot) to vary with the depth of 1344 meters. 20 point from the suit, the 12 point dive in them around Bunaken Island. Twelve point dive this is the most frequently visited by divers and lovers of the beauty of the sea bottom.
Most of the 12 point dive in the Bunaken Island line from the southeast to the northwest island. In this region there is a great underwater walls, also called the hanging walls, or walls of a giant coral vertical stand and buckle up. Coral wall is also a source of food for fish in the waters around Bunaken Island.
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18 Januari 2009
Compared with the Kuta, Sanur area overnight to provide a place that is relatively more expensive but quiet. Compared with the Nusa Dua, Bali offers a price slightly cheaper.
Sanur beach area is an alternative for local and foreign tourists who want to avoid the feel of the bustle such as Kuta, Legian or Seminyak. In this area quiet and comfort is top priority. For those who like to enjoy the sunrise (sunrise) and Sanur is a place that is very appropriate.
Like, especially in the area of Nusa Dua, Sanur, in the hotel, there are world-class hotel. Here stood Hyatt Sanur Bali, Sanur Beach Hotel, Mercure Resort Sanur, the Grand Bali Beach with a golf course in the area hotelnya. Besides, most of the all-star hotel in the Sanur may simply have their own beach (private beach) on the back of the hotel. So with the life of a world-class living in hotels bertarif expensive you can still get in the Sanur area.
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16 Januari 2009
Batik is a craft that has high artistic value and has become part of the culture of Indonesia (particularly Java) since long. Javanese women in the past made them in the skills to make a livelihood, so that in the past to make the work is to work exclusively women finding "Batik Cap" which allows the inclusion of men in this field. There are some exceptions to this phenomenon, namely the coastal batik has the masculine, as can be seen in the pattern "Mega Mendung", which in some coastal areas is to make work for the common man.
Variety Batik pattern and color is influenced by various foreign influences. Initially, batik has multiformity pattern and color are limited, and some patterns may only be used by certain circles. However coastal batik absorb various external influences, such as foreign traders and in the end, the colonists. Bright colors such as red dipopulerkan by the Chinese, who also popularize phoenix patterns. Colonialist European nations also take interest in the batik, and the result is a pattern bebungaan previously unknown (such as tulip flowers) and also objects brought by colonists (the building or horse-drawn carriage), including the colors of their favorite colors such as blue. Maintain the traditional batik coraknya, and is still used in traditional ceremonies, usually because each color has a symbolism of each.
Technique has been to make known since thousands of years back. There is no historical information that is quite clear about the origins of batik. Some suspect this technique comes from the Sumerian nation, and developed in Java after brought by Indian traders. At this time batik can be found in many countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, India, Sri Lanka, and Iran. Besides in Asia, batik is also very popular in some countries in the African continent. However, batik, which is very famous in the world is a batik from Indonesia, mainly from Java.
The tradition is beginning to make on that tradition from generation to generation, so that sometimes a motif can be identified came from a family batik. Some batik motif can indicate the status of someone. Even now, some batik motif tadisional only used by the family palace in Yogyakarta and Surakarta.
Batik is the ancestor of the inheritance of Indonesia (Java) is still there. Batik is also the first time introduced to the world by President Soeharto, who at that time the United Nations Conference on batik.
Ways of making
Originally created in batik top with white material made of cotton cloth called mori. These batik also made on other materials such as silk, poliester, rayon and other synthetic materials. Batik motif formed with liquid wax using a tool called a canting motive for the fine, or brush for large-sized patterns, so that the liquid wax seep into the fabric fibers. Cloth that has been painted with wax and then dyed with the desired color, usually starting from the colors of youth. Immersion and then made another motive for the color of dark or older. After some time the process of coloring, the fabric that has been dibatik dicelupkan in chemicals for melarutkan candle.
* Write Batik cloth is decorated with batik patterns teksture and use hands. Making this kind of batik takes approximately 2-3 months.
* Batik cloth cap is decorated with batik patterns and teksture formed with the cap (usually made of copper). The process of making this type of batik take approximately 2-3 days.
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15 Januari 2009
Indeed, plants with this name is not a single species of plants, but a group of clans (genus) Durio. But generally, the durian usual (without any particle) is the scientific name has Durio zibethinus. While the types of durian that may be eaten and sometimes found in the local market in Southeast Asia including D. kutejensis (lai), D. oxleyanus (kerantungan), D. graveolens (durian turtle or kekura), and D. dulcis (lahung). Durian further description below refers to Durio zibethinus.
Many people consider the durian fruit as well. Society often called "king of fruits." However, some people will not hold and consider baunya stink. Richard Sterling (dalamThe Traveling Curmudgoen) said: "baunya is similar to the dirt with the pigs, terpentin and onion, and decorated with dirty socks from the field of sports. Baunya tercium remotely." There was also a smell that smell like durian that out of the garbage truck.
Annual tree, green immortal (leaf shedding does not depend on season) but there is a specific time for the new leaves (Flushing period). Growth can reach a height of 40 m, durian trees often have banir (root of the board). Pepagan (stem bark) reddish brown, not burn uniform. Tajuknya shady and distant.
Ellipse-shaped leaves to the lancet, 10-15 (-17) cm × 3-4,5 (-12.5) cm; take located; bertangkai; have a taper or be blunt and taper rolling; the top of the green light, the side down scale closed-shell or silver with golden stars plume.
Interest (and fruit) appears directly from the stem (cauliflorous) or branches of old, gather in the column contains 3-10 skein bud-shaped or flat tassel. Bud flowers rounded, about 2 cm diameternya, bertangkai long. Sheath of interest along the tube lk. 3 cm, leaf sheath to be split 2-3 round egg-shaped lobe. Crown shape spatula, about 2 × long sheath, amounted to 5 sheets, whitish. Benangsarinya many, divided into 5 files; putiknya head shape knob, with a sprig of feathery. flowers appear from dorman bud, blossom in the afternoon and stand up to several days. Interest rate spread this fragrant aroma to attract the bats as the main penyerbuk.
Durian fruit-shaped capsule form rounded, rounded up to oval eggs, with a length of up to 25 cm diameter and up to 20 cm. Skin fruit thick, sharp-cornered surface ( "thorny", so-called "durian", although this is not in the spine of botany), green yellowish, brown, to grayish.
Developing fruit after fertilization and requires 4-6 weeks for the concoction. During the competition antarbuah concoction occurred in one group, so only one or a few pieces that will reach maturity, and the rest killed. The fruit will fall if their own cooking. In general, heavy durian fruit can reach 1.5 to 5 kilograms, so a durian plantation area that is dangerous on the durian season. When the head falls on someone, durian fruit can cause serious injury or even death.
Each fruit has a 5 "rooms" (rooms), which indicates the number of leaves of the fruit. Each room occupied by some of the seeds, usually 3 or more grains, tapering to 4 cm long, pink and brown shiny. Terbungkus by arilus seed (seed wrapper, which is often referred to as "flesh fruit" durian) white to light yellow with a thickness that varies, but the superior kultivar thickness arilus can reach 3 cm. Seeds with seed wrapper is called in the trade pongge. Pemuliaan durian directed to produce seeds with a small seed wrapper is thick, because this is the seed wrapper that is eaten.
Each 100 g salut seeds contain 67 g of water, 28.3 g carbohydrate, 2.5 g fat, 2.5 g protein, 1.4 g fiber, and energy have a value of 520 kJ. Durian also contains vitamins B1, B2, and vitamin C, and potassium, calcium and phosphorus.
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14 Januari 2009
In the family of using music from the known species of bamboo called Angklung and calung. The type of bamboo used as a musical instrument is Awi wulung (black bamboo) and Awi temen (white bamboo). Purwa Angklung shapes of musical instruments and similar calung same; each tone (pitch) generated from the sound of tube-shaped bambunya that wilahan (batangan) each bamboo segment of small to large size.
Angklung is a musical instrument that came from West Java. Angklung gubrag in Jasinga, Bogor, is one that is still alive since more than 400 years past. Appear was from ritus rice. Angklung created and played for the bait down to Dewi Sri Earth so that people grow rice fertile.
Sundanese known by the public since the Sunda kingdom, such as in the spirit in penggugah. Angklung blower function as the spirit of the people still feel to the colonial period, that is why the Dutch had Angklung prohibit the public use, the prohibition was making Angklung popularity decreased and only in the play by children at the time.
Origin of the music of bamboo, such as Angklung calung and community life based on the views of Sunda agrarian life, the source of rice (pare) as a staple food. This is the birth of the mythical beliefs Nyai Sri Pohaci as a symbol of our life Dewi Padi (hirup-hurip).
Contemplation before Sundanese people in agricultural work (tatanen) especially in the field and gave birth to the creation of huma and poetic songs, and as a tribute to the Sri Pohaci Nyai, and efforts nyinglar (decline troops) so that they are not suitable planting invite catastrophe, both interference and pest disaster other nature. Poetic song to honor buhun Nyi Sri Pohaci are for example:
Sawahe the waru inclined
Sawahe ujuring eler
Sawahe ujuring etan
Solasi pipe Dami
Menyan white pengundang dewa
Panurunan the patang puluh
Then the songs of the Dewi Sri is accompanied by the sound of train tabuh made of bamboo rod-rod which is packed and the simple structure was born bamboo musical instrument that we know now the Angklung and calung. Development in the next game Angklung tradition also accompanied with the element of movement and ibing (dance), which ritmis (ber-wirahma) with the patterns and rules = rules in accordance with the needs of a particular ritual homage at the time to accompany the rice paddy to the barn (ngampih pare, nginebkeun), also at the time mitembeyan, the planting of rice in some places in West Java called ngaseuk.
Similarly, at the time of harvest festival and games are seren taun Angklung and calung. Especially in the serving of Angklung ceremony associated with rice, has become an art show is a procession or helaran, even in some places a convoy Rengkong and Dongdang and Jampana (stretcher food) and so forth.
In its development, Angklung grown and spread to the entire Java, and to Kalimantan and Sumatra. 1908 recorded on a cultural mission from India to Thailand, among others, by delivering Angklung, and this game is the music of bamboo had spread there.
In fact, since 1966, Mang Udjo leaders Angklung develop a technique based on the game pitch-barrel pelog, salendro, and start-madenda teach how to play Angklung many people from various communities.
Angklung Kanekes in the region (we often call them the Baduy) is used mainly because the relationship with ritus rice, not merely entertainment for the people. Angklung used or be pronounced when they were planting rice in huma (field). Angklung Menabuh when to plant the rice is free only be pronounced (dikurulungkeun), especially in Kajeroan (Tangtu; Baduy Jero), and there is a certain ritmis, namely in Kaluaran (Foreign Baduy). However, still can be displayed outside ritus rice but still have the rules, for example, may only ditabuh to pare the ngubaran (treat rice), about three months since ditanamnya of rice. After that, during the next six months all the arts should not be played, and can be played again on the next rice planting season. Angklung held close to the event called the Angklung musungkeun, namely nitipkeun (check, store) Angklung after use.
In the course of entertainment, usually held at Angklung bright days and does not rain. They play in Angklung it (the wide rural) while sing various songs, among others: Lutung Kasarung, Yandu Bibi, Yandu Sala, Ceuk Arileu, Oray-orayan, Dengdang, Yari Gandang, Oyong-oyong Bangkong Agency, Kula, Kokoloyoran, Ayun-swaying, Pileuleuyan, infatuated Manggu, Rujak Gadung, Mulung Muncang, Giler, Ngaranggeong, Aceukna, Marengo, Salak Sadapur, Rangda Ngendong, Celementre, Keupat Reundang, Papacangan, and Culadi Dengdang. The Angklung penabuh of eight people and three penabuh bedug small standing position while walking in a circle formation. Meanwhile, the other is ngalage (dance) with a movement that has a certain standard, but simple. Everything is done only by men. This is different from the Daduy In society, they are limited by a variety of customary rules pamali (prohibition; taboo), could not do anything excessive worldly enjoyment. Art made solely for the purpose of the ritual.
The names in the Angklung Kanekes from the biggest is: mother, ringkung, dongdong, gossip, engklok, parent leutik, torolok, and Roel. Roel consisting of 2 units held by a Angklung. The names of the bedug is terpanjang: bedug, talingtit, and percussion. The use of instruments bedug there are differences, namely in the villages Kaluaran their use bedug of 3 units. In Kajeroan; Cikeusik village, just use bedug and talingtit, without percussion. In Kajeroan, Cibeo village, just use bedug, without talingtit and percussion.
In the Kanekes Angklung is entitled to make people Kajeroan (Tangtu; Baduy Jero). Kajeroan consists of 3 villages, namely Cibeo, Cikartawana, and Cikeusik. In the third village is not all people can make, the only offspring and to have the following in addition to the terms of the ritual. Creator Angklung Cikeusik in a famous father is Amir (59), and in Cikartawana father Tarnah. Kaluaran people buy from people in the three Kajeroan village.
Angklung Dogdog Lojor
Art dogdog lojor there are people in Kasepuhan Pancer Pangawinan or customs union Banten Kidul spread around Mount Halimun (borders Sukabumi, Bogor and Lebak). Although this is called art dogdog lojor, the name of one of the instruments in it, but there is also used as Angklung connection with the events of rice rituals. Once a year, after the harvest, the whole community event or Taun The Seren Taun customary in the center of the village. Center as the traditional village dwelling kokolot (elders) place always moved according to the supernatural.
Honor the tradition of rice to the community is still carried out because they include people who still adhere to old customs. The tradition of their own as the offspring of officials and soldiers in the palace Pajajaran baresan Pangawinan (soldiers armed with a lance). Kasepuhan community has adopted Islam and the influence will be quite open modernization, and the things worldly enjoyment of entertainment can dinikmatinya. This attitude is also in the function of art around since the 1970s, dogdog lojor has experienced growth, which is used to enliven khitanan children, marriage, and other events kemeriahan. Instruments used in the arts dogdog lojor is 2 fruit dogdog lojor and 4 Angklung large fruit. The four pieces Angklung has a name, called the biggest howl, and then panembal, kingking, and inclok. Each instrument is played by one, so that all of six people.
Songs of them dogdog lojor Bale Agung, Hideung Side, shaky-shaky Papanganten, Si Tunggul Kawung, Adulilang, and Adu-complaint. Songs with this form of vocal ritmis dogdog Angklung and tend to remain.
Badeng is a type of art that emphasizes the aspect of the musical Angklung music as the main tool. Badeng found in the village near, Malangbong District, Garut. Previously functioning as entertainment for the benefit of the Islamic propaganda. But the alleged badeng people have been used since long before the period of Islam for the events related to the rice-planting ritual. As for the art of propaganda badeng be developed since Islam spread in the area around the century-16 or 17. At that time the population sanding, Arpaen and Nursaen, to study Islam Demak kingdom. After they returned from Demak berdakwah spread Islam. One of the spread of Islam is the use of the arts badeng.
Angklung used as many as nine pieces of Angklung Roel 2, 1 Angklung kecer, 4 Angklung Angklung mother and father, Angklung 2 children; 2 fruit dogdog, 2 fruit fly or gembyung, and 1 kecrek. Sundanese language text using a language mixed with Arabic. In its development is now also used the language of Indonesia. Content includes text Islamic values and good advice, advice, according to the purposes and events. In addition to presenting pertunjukannya songs, also presented kesaktian attractions, such as body segment with sharp weapons.
Songs badeng: Lailahaileloh, Ya'ti, Kasreng, Yautike, Lilimbungan, Solaloh.
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13 Januari 2009
750 gr lamb loin, cut 2 cm dice
15 pcs skewer that has been soaked in water
5 LBR citrus leaves, finely sliced
10 btr onion, finely sliced
1 tbsp pepper powder
100 ml sweet soy sauce
2 tbsp lime juice
50 gr cabbage, finely sliced
4 pcs tomato, sliced thin
6 tbsp fried onion for topping
15 pcs cayenne pepper, sliced finely
10 btr onion, finely sliced
5 tbsp sweet soy sauce
1 tsp pepper powder
2 tbsp lime juice lime
How to make:
Pin prick each sate with 4 - 5 pieces of meat. Mixed all the materials for the flavor. Mixed with spices and roasted sate sate dibara fire once while the rest be oiled-time flavor. Serve with sate complement
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11 Januari 2009
The History of Majapahit
After Singhasari drive away from Sriwijaya overall in the year 1290, Singhasari become the most powerful kingdom in the region. This is a concern Kubilai Khan, the Yuan Dynasty in China. He send messengers called Chi Meng to the demands Singhasari tribute. Kertanagara, the kingdom last Singhasari, refused to pay tribute and mempermalukan messenger with damage to face and ears cut off. Kublai Khan angry and then dispatch of troops to Java year 1293.
Then, Jayakatwang, duke Kediri, Kertanagara have been killed. Aria Wiraraja above suggestions, give clemency to Jayakatwang Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara daughter, who came resign. Raden Wijaya and Drag given forest. He opened the forest and build a new village. The village is named Majapahit, whose name was taken from the fruit maja, and the feeling of "bitter" the fruit of it. When the troops arrived Mongolia, Wijaya allied with the Mongolian army to battle against Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya turn the associate Mongolnya force so that they return home pasukannya interesting is chaotic because they are in foreign territory. When it is also the last opportunity for them to catch wind muson to be able to return home, or they must be forced to wait six months in a foreign island.
Date used as the definitive date of birth of the kingdom of Majapahit was penobatan as king Raden Wijaya, namely on 10 November 1293. He dinobatkan with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. Kingdom of this problems. Some people trusted Kertarajasa, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled melawannya, although the rebellion was not successful. Slamet Muljana suspect that mahapatih Halayudha the ones who do all the conspiracy to topple the king's trusted, so that he can reach the highest positions in government. However, after the death of the last (Kuti), Halayudha arrested and dipenjara, and then die. Wijaya died in the year 1309.
Children and the successor Wijaya, Jayanegara, is the ruler of evil and unscrupulous. He digelari Kala Gemet, which means "weak villain." In the year 1328, Jayanegara killed by tabibnya, Tanca. Mother tirinya namely Gayatri Rajapatni should replace it, but choose Rajapatni step down from the palace and become a priestess. Rajapatni appoint Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi daughter to become the queen of Majapahit. During the power Tribhuwana, Majapahit kingdom developed into a large and more famous in the area. Majapahit Tribhuwana the death of his mother until the year 1350. It was forwarded by her son, Hayam Wuruk.
Hayam Wuruk, also called Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit from 1350 until 1389. At the time, Majapahit kejayaannya culminate with the help mahapatihnya, Gajah Mada. Under the direction of the Gajah Mada (1313-1364), Majapahit over more areas. In the year 1377, several years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit unleash attacks Palembang to the sea, the failure remnant Sriwijaya kingdom. The other is famous Majapahit Adityawarman, renowned as penaklukannya in Minangkabau.
According Kakawin Nagarakretagama pupuh XIII-XV, the power of Majapahit cover Sumatra, Malaya peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, Papua, and some islands of the Philippines . However, the limits of nature and the economy shows that the areas of power did not seem to be centralized under the authority of Majapahit, but terhubungkan one another by trade may be the monopoly by the king. Majapahit also have relationships with coarse, Cambodia, Siam, the southern part of Burma, and Vietnam, and even send-dutanya ambassador to China.
The fall of Majapahit
After reaching its peak in 14-century, Majapahit power gradually weakened. Seems to happen war (War Paregreg) in the years 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. Similarly, the turnover has been a king who dipertengkarkan in the year 1450-an, and been a major rebellion by a nobleman in the year 1468.
In a tradition kronogram or candrasengkala that sounds sirna ilang kretaning earth. Sengkala this year is perhaps the end of Majapahit and should be read as 0041, the year 1400 Saka, or 1478 BC. Sengkala meaning is "earth sirna hilanglah prosperity." However, the actual described by candrasengkala is gugurnya Bre Kertabumi, the king of Majapahit to-11, by Girindrawardhana .
When Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and the carrier has begun to enter the religious archipelago. At the end of the century and the early-14-15 th century, the Majapahit in the entire archipelago start decreasing. At the same time, a kingdom of trade based on the new religion of Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began appearing in the western part of the archipelago .
Note the history of Chinese, Portuguese, Italian and indicates that there has been movement of power from the hands of Majapahit Hindu ruler to hand Adipati Unus, the Sultanate of Demak, between the years 1518 and 1521 M
Majapahit Kingdom is the last Hindu kingdom in the Malay peninsula and is considered as one of the largest country in the history of Indonesia. in his outward Sumatra, Malaya peninsula, east of Borneo and Indonesia, even though his area is still debated.
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10 Januari 2009
History of Wayang Kulit
Wayang is a generic term denoting traditional theatre in Indonesia. There is no evidence that wayang existed before Hinduism came to Southeast Asia sometime in the first century CE. However, there very well may have been indigenous storytelling traditions that had a profound impact on the development of the traditional puppet theatre. The first record of a wayang performance is from an inscription dated 930 CE which says "si Galigi mawayang," or "Sir Galigi played wayang". From that time till today it seems certain features of traditional puppet theatre have remained. Galigi was an itinerant performer who was requested to perform for a special royal occasion. At that event he performed a story about the hero Bima from the Mahabharata.
Hinduism arrived in Indonesia from India even before the Christian era, and was slowly adopted as the local belief system. Sanskrit became the literary and court language of Java and later of Bali. The Hindus changed the Wayang (as did the Muslims, later) to spread their religion, mostly by stories from the Mahabharata or the Ramayana. Later this mixture of religion and wayang play was praised as harmony between Hinduism and traditional Indonesian culture. On Java, the western part of Sumatra and some smaller islands traditionalists continued to play the old stories for some time, but the influence of Hinduism prevailed and the traditional stories either fell into oblivion or were integrated into the Hinduistic plays.
The figures of the wayang are also present in the paintings of that time, for example, the roof murals of the courtroom in Klungkung, Bali. They are still present in traditional Balinese painting today.
When Islam began spreading in Indonesia, the display of God or gods in human form was prohibited, and thus this style of painting and shadow play was suppressed. King Raden Patah of Demak, Java, wanted to see the wayang in its traditional form, but failed to obtain permission from the Muslim religious leaders. As an alternative, the religious leaders converted the wayang golek into wayang purwa made from leather, and displayed only the shadow instead of the figures itself. Instead of the forbidden figures only their shadow picture was displayed, the birth of the wayang kulit.
The figures are painted, flat woodcarvings (a maximum of 5 to 15 mm thick -- barely half an inch) with movable arms. The head is solidly attached to the body. Wayang klitikcan be used to perform puppet plays either during the day or at night. This type of wayang is relatively rare.
Wayang today is both the most ancient and most popular form of puppet theatre in the world. Hundreds of people will stay up all night long to watch the superstar performers, dalang, who command extravagant fees and are international celebrities. Some of the most famous dalang in recent history are Ki Nartosabdho, Ki Anom Suroto, Ki Asep Sunarya, Ki Sugino, and Ki Manteb Sudarsono.
Wayang kulit Wayang kulit as seen from the shadow side
Wayang kulit, shadow puppets prevalent in Java and Bali in Indonesia, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully chiseled with very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods.
The stories are usually drawn from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata or the Serat Menak. The island of Lombok has developed its own style of Serat Menak called "kazangiloonga".
There is a family of characters in Javanese wayang called Punakawan; they are sometimes referred to as "clown-servants" because they normally are associated with the story's hero, and provide humorous and philosophical interludes. Semar is the father of Gareng (oldest son), Petruk, and Bagong (youngest son). These characters did not originate in the Hindu epics, but were added later, possibly to introduce mystical aspects of Islam into the Hindu-Javanese stories. They provide something akin to a political cabaret, dealing with gossip and contemporary affairs.
The puppets figures themselves vary from place to place. In Central Java the city of Surakarta (Solo) is most famous and is the most commonly imitated style of puppets. Regional styles of shadow puppets can also be found in West Java, Banyumas, Cirebon, Semarang, and East Java. Bali produces more compact and naturalistic figures, and Lombok has figures representing real people. Often modern-world objects as bicycles, automobiles, airplanes and ships will be added for comic effect, but for the most part the traditional puppet designs have changed little in the last 300 years.
Historically, the performance consisted of shadows cast on a cotton screen and an oil lamp. Today, the source of light used in wayang performance in Java is most often a halogen electric light. Some modern forms of wayang such as Wayang Sandosa created in the Art Academy at Surakarta (STSI) has employed spotlights, colored lights and other innovations.
The handwork involved in making a wayang kulit figure that is suitable for a performance takes several weeks, with the artists working together in groups. They start from master models (typically on paper) which are traced out onto kulit (skin or parchment), providing the figures with an outline and with indications of any holes that will need to be cut (such as for the mouth or eyes). The figures are then smoothed, usually with a glass bottle, and primed. The structure is inspected and eventually the details are worked through. A further smoothing follows before individual painting, which is undertaken by yet another craftsman. Finally, the movable parts (upper arms, lower arms with hands and the associated sticks for manipulation) mounted on the body, which has a central staff by which it is held. A crew makes up to ten figures at a time, typically completing that number over the course of a week.
The painting of less expensive puppets is handled expediently with a spray technique, using templates, and with a different person handling each color. Less expensive puppets, often sold to children during performances, are sometimes made on cardboard instead of leather.
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When people come in early European Abat to-16, until the 17th century Dutch emerged as the most powerful ruler in the earth Equator Zambrut this. Until the keanekaragam is the evolution of flora and fauna, which occurred in the archipelago earth Equator. Only ancient fish called the adult is not yet extinct fish Arwana (Scleropages sp). Up to this fish until seabad ago, nearly unknown, in the year 1844 up to two people
German scientist named Muller and Schlegel interested in the beauty of the fish that they find in South America. Research they found that fish is not known. Both give the name of the fish Osteoglossum formosum.
Then in 1913 two Dutch experts Zoology Max Weber and LF de Beaufort change its name to Scleropages formosus. Until the discovery of this type last Kanazawa by Japanese scientists in 1966, has found many Arwana. At least four have already known that the genus with one species Arapaima (Arapaima gigas), Osteoglossum with two species of Osteoglossum bicirrhosum and Osteoglossum ferreirai, then Scleropages genus with four species, namely Scleropages formosus, Scleropages guntheri, Scleropaghes leichardti and Scleropages jardini. Genus is the last Clupisudis with single species Cluoisudis nilot. While in Indonesia, which is found there are so many types of Super Red Arowana (Scleropages formosus). Arwana this type are found in very many rivers and lakes in Sintang, Kapuas Hulu. The rivers are the Kapuas River that children save many Arwana, because the river or danaunya not berbatu and river flows quietly, not sederas Kapuas River. Fish Arwana red (Scleropages formosus) increasingly difficult to find in the original habitat in Lake Sentarum, Kapuas Hulu regency, West Kalimantan Province. Until basically and generally known that fish Arwana (Scleropages formosus) is one of the freshwater fish species from Southeast Asia. This fish has a body length, fin anus is located far behind the body.
Arwana Asia generally have keperak color-perakan. Arwana Asia also called Dragon Fish because dihubunghubungkan often with the dragon of Chinese Mythology. In addition to the West Kalimantan, fish Arwana also found in Sumatra, especially in the area of Riau and Jambi, but the type is Arwana Merah (Red Golden Arowana) This species is still included Scleropages formosus. Basic colors Arwana Sumatra is golden yellow in the head and tail on
fin and red taillights. Arwana diincar that many collectors are not "bergincu" lips. However pamornya not sehebat Super Red Arowana.
Type Arwana that also are found in Indonesia is Arwana green (Green Arowana), which is also found in Borneo, among others, in Melawai River and River Mensiku. The main colors are green on the tail. However, the color green is often not visible because of a closed red. Only in the adult, the color green is clearly the more visible. Arwana green habibatnya this is the color of river water is not too clean, kecokelatan. There are two types of Arwana others who also lived in Indonesia, namely in Papua, but the population is not too large. Collectors also prefer to hunt this type of Arwana population in Australia is quite high.
Australia's population Arwana type of Scleropages jardini and Scleropages leichardti high. The first type mainly found in the River of Queensland and Jardine River. Characteristics, body berbintik red, part of the stomach silver. While the type of Scleropages leichardti there are many in the Fitzroy River, Mary River, Dawson River Burnett River and Australia.
Type this in Indonesia also found in some small rivers in Papua. However, because the observation in Papua has not been intensive, many people estimate the population of this second type of Arwana big enough. While the types of Silver Arowana and Black Arowana found a lot of South America, North and some rivers in Africa. In Indonesia as well Arwana population in Papua, has not been recorded clearly by the government. While we know that Asia is Arwana species native rivers in Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia. There
variates four colors that are dilokasi:
1. Green, found in Indonesia, Vietnam, Burma, Thailand and Malaysia
2. Gold with red tails, found in Indonesia
3. Gold, dfitemukan in Malaysia
4. Red, found in Indonesia
Arwana Asia that are listed in the list of endangered species that are "endangered" fish Arwana especially Super Red (Scleropages formosus) by IUCN in 2004. Number of species that are often due to decrease because of the high value as aquarium fish, especially by Asian community, pursuivant Feng Shui can pay a high price for a fish this.
Arwana generally divided four main types of the Arwana Asia (Scleropages Formosus), Australia Arowana (Scleropages Jardini / Leichardi), Arwana South America (Osteoglossum Bicirrhosum / Ferreirai) and Arwana Africa. Each collection has a unique and distinctive each Arwana Asialah but that is a collection of these sales and diperingkat world at this time. While CITES (Convention on International Trade inEndangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is the agreement states that a regulation and protection of species of plants and animals will be extinct dikwatirkan. CITES history began from the United Antarabangsa Maintenance Nature.
In the year 1972, for tergagas more concerned with the natural flora and fauna and for human life. So tergagaslah "Human Environment Council" among the nations that together and created a formulation of the problem of trade of flora and fauna are almost extinct in this earth. Up to the Convention in Washinton in the next year, with the results of the 72 countries agreed and signed since 1 July 1975. Government of Malaysia with a system that can pour two fish species that are placed under escort CITES is Temoleh Fish, (Probarbus julleinii) Fish and Kelisa / Arwana, (Scleropages formosus) can be made of undangnya and strict supervision from the government.
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09 Januari 2009
Gado-gado as such can be eaten as salad with spices / peanut sauce, but can also be eaten with white rice or sometimes also served with lontong.
Vegetables are often used can vary, even though vegetables used are:
* Vegetables sliced green small as lettuce, cabbage, cabbage flower, long beans, and bean sprouts.
* Vegetables such as carrots and other mentimun.
* Potato stew of shredded.
* Boiled eggs.
With the exception of eggs and boiled potatoes, vegetables that are usually used in the raw. Despite sometimes vegetables such as cabbage and cabbage flowers can also boiled hot water. There are also vegetables that are cooked with steam heat.
One of the differences of gado-gado salad peanut sauce is used. The material used for the peanut sauce can also be varied. Materials used are:
* Beans are fried dilumatkan
* White Bawang
* Chili, pepper
* Water lemon
Sometimes also added:
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There are many opinions about the origin of the power. So far there is no really satisfactory. Pandapat Dayak people generally place as one of the largest native ethnic group and the oldest inhabited island of Kalimantan. Ideas (the original) is based on the theory of population migration to Kalimantan. Starting from the opinion that, supposedly the ancestor of Dayak people came from several migration waves.
The first wave occurred about 1 million years ago, precisely in the period Interglasial-Pleistosen. This group consists of Australoid race (pre-human race that historically come from Africa). At the time of Pre-neolitikum, approximately 40000-20000 years past, more ethnic groups semi nomaden (classified as modern humans, Homo sapiens Mongoloid race). Digging in the Niah-arkeologis Serawak, Madai and Baturong-Sabah prove that these groups are using the tools of stone, living hunting and gathering forest products from one place to another. They also have the technology of fire. The third group came around 5000 years ago. They came from Asia and the mainland are also in the Mongoloid race. This group has been living in a settled community communal house (home long?) Tekhnik and the dry land agriculture (farming). Wave of migration that still continues to this 21st century. This theory explains why Dayak people have so many variants in both language and cultural characteristics.
Dayak at the present time
Nowadays Dayak tribe divided into six large family, that is, the Kayan-Kenyah-Bahau, OT Danum, Iban, Murut, Punan and Klemantan. The six family is divided in more than 405 sub-cluster. Although divided into hundreds of sub-tribe, ethnic group have Dayak similarity characteristics unique culture. The characteristics of a key factor is whether a subsuku in Kalimantan to be included in the Dayak groups. The characteristics of the house is long, the cultural materials such as pottery, saber, chopsticks, beliong (ax Dayak); views on the nature, livelihoods (system), art and dance. Dayak villages usually called lewu / dust, while a group of tribes called the continent Malay / BANUA. In the district-district in Kalimantan, which is led by the indigenous Dayak Ceremony of the head of a leading one or two different Dayak tribe, but in the regions of the tribes do not have Malay traditional leadership system unless the local kings.
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08 Januari 2009
Houses have bumbung arch structure with a dramatic multi-tired, upswept gables. Casement base has dibinakan into walls carved with flowers and a lot of paint. The term usually refers large house in the communal house of a larger, residential part from the small mengongsikan many elements of the style of art binanya.
Sumatra is the sixth largest island in the world and since Marco Polo's time he referred to as the 'island of gold'. He is the richest island in Indonesia, natural resources, including tehnya, pepper fields and gum, oil, beans and lead other extractive resources.  Located on the equator, Sumatra have tengkujuh weather and even more rains between October and May, there is no dry season that is not in the rain. Ignore the large-scale demolition in the forest, Sumatra mumpunyai still millions ekar wilderness that is not exploited to provide building materials. Key hardwood guidance is needed for now, walaubagaimanapun, in a very limited bekalan.
Sumatra is home to a tribe-tribe terpelbagai in the archipelago of Southeast Asia  and perlbagaian this has been reflected in the various types of houses on the often dramatic tradition known as the customs house. Forms a terumum is the origin of wood and is founded on piles, dibinakan on material gathered in local, with a steep bumbung. Additional home to large Minangkabau, Batak people from the area of Lake Toba build jabu shaped boat dominating Carved with gables and bumbung-bumbung a very large, and the Nias membinakan home entrench the Omo sebua on wooden poles with iron, wood structure bumbung bermenara.
Minangkabau people is a native of the area on high ground Sumatra middle. Their culture is matrilineal, with property and land inherited from mother to daughter, while the ehwal religion and politics is the responsibility of men. Minangkabau people is a strong adherent of Islam, but also follow the tradition of their own - that are recognized as customary perpatih. Minangkabau customary perpatih comes from animism and Hindu beliefs before the arrival of Islam, and animism remainder trust still exist between them even though the practice of Islam. By so, the female predominance is still entitled to be property owners, the husband only tolerated in the house Some time and under special circumstances, and must return to the home of brother-beradik daughter to bed.  rig this practice is customary in wander Where a lot of men will roam far to work, only returning Some period of time to their villages of origin. Wang found from this odyssey delivered to the home of a contemporary tradition.
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The dancers sit around the cloth is put on the boxes, such as chess boards around their waist. In addition to the dancers is, there are the other dancers who portray characters such as the Ramayana, Rama, Shinta, Rahwana, Hanoman and Sugriwa.
Kecak dance (pronunciation: / 'ke.tʃak /, roughly "KEH-chahk", an alternative spelling: Ketjak, Ketjack, and Ketiak), is the Balinese performing arts that was created in 1930-an and played mainly by men . Dance this be by many (tens or more) male dancers who form a circle and sat down with the rhythm called a "smack" and the second arm, describes the story of Ramayana monkeys help line at Rama against Rahwana. However, Kecak sanghyang derived from the rituals, the tradition of dance penarinya are not aware of the condition , making communication with God or the spirit of the ancestors and the hope-and hopes to the people.
The dancers sit around the cloth is put on the boxes, such as chess boards around their waist. In addition to the dancers is, there are the other dancers who portray characters such as the Ramayana, Rama, Shinta, Rahwana, Hanoman and Sugriwa.
Kecak dance songs taken from the ritual dances sanghyang. In addition, the tool does not use music. Only used kincringan charged on foot dancers portray the figures Ramayana.
Around 1930, an Wayan Limbak working with the German painter Walter Spies create Kecak dance tradition based on Sanghyang and parts of the story of Ramayana. Wayan Limbak popularize dance this time around the world with the group of its dancers Bali.
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07 Januari 2009
In ancient times, primitive people have not used the money or the means of exchange. This is because by that time people can meet all the desires of the surrounding lam. When the natural resources they use out, they began to move and use of natural resources in the surrounding areas again. Then when the emergence of ancient human civilization began to exchange goods with goods belonging to own other people, which is called barter. Then, after the era of more advanced, people start using the tool trade, although not the form of money. The tool is called money goods. Then after the use of human writing and letters, called dikenallah money or trust money (money fiduciair).
The word "dollar" is derived from the word "Rupee", a currency India. Indonesian currency has Gulden Netherlands from 1610 to 1817. After the year 1817, introduced the currency Gulden Dutch. Currency rupiah was first introduced officially at the time of Japanese occupation during the Second World War-2, with the Dutch East Indies rupiah. After the war, the Bank of Java (Javaans Bank, to become the next Bank Indonesia) introduced the rupiah currency as a substitute for it. Gulden NICA currency made by the partners and some of the currency printed guerrilla group also valid at that time.
Since 2 November 1949, four years after independence, India set Rupiah currency as the new kebangsaannya. Riau Islands and West Irian rupiah variations have their own use but they disbanded in 1964 in Riau and West Irian in 1974.
Asian economic crisis of 1998 caused the rupiah fell as much as 35% and bring the fall of Soeharto.
Rupiah is the currency that can be exchanged freely, but with penalties didagangkan caused a high rate of inflation.
Fraction Currency Rupiah
Rp.100 (Metal & Paper)
Rp.500 (Metal & Paper)
Rp.1.000 (Metals & Paper)
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Indonesia Raya - Lagu Kebangsaan Republik Indonesia - Lagu Wajib NasionalCiptaan : W.R. Supratman / Wage Rudolf Supratman
Indonesia tanah airku
Tanah tumpah darahku
Disanalah aku berdiri
Jadi pandu ibuku
Bangsa dan Tanah Airku
Marilah kita berseru
Bangsaku Rakyatku semuanya
Untuk Indonesia Raya
Tanahku negriku yang kucinta
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya
Tanahku negriku yang kucinta
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya
Indonesia Tanah yang mulia
Tanah kita yang kaya
Di sanalah aku berada Untuk slama-lamanya
Indonesia Tanah pusaka Pusaka Kita semuanya
Marilah kita mendoa Indonesia bahagia
Suburlah Tanahnya Suburlah jiwanya
Bangsanya Rakyatnya semuanya
Sadarlah hatinya Sadarlah budinya
Untuk Indonesia Raya
Indonesia Tanah yang suci Tanah kita yang sakti
Disanalah aku berdiri 'njaga ibu sejati
Indonesia! Tanah berseri Tanah yang aku sayangi
Marilah kita berjanji Indonesia abadi
Slamatlah Rakyatnya Slamatlah putranya
Pulaunya lautnya semuanya
Majulah Negrinya Majulah Pandunya
Untuk Indonesia Raya
This song is Indonesian National Anthem
Indonesian old patriotic song
Free public song & non commercial copyrighted song lyric
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06 Januari 2009
Pencak silat parent organization in Indonesia is the IPSI (Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia). Persilat (Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antara Nation), is the name of the organization that was formed by Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam for the federation mewadahi-pencak silat federation in various countries.
Silat is spread in the islands of the archipelago since the 7th century BC, but the origin will not be the beginning. However, at this time silat has been recognized as an ethnic Malay culture in the area, , namely the coastal areas of Sumatra island and Peninsular Malacca, and various other ethnic groups who use the lingua franca Malay language in various areas in Java island , Bali, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and others of the same shape also develop their own traditional silat. Sheikh Shamsuddin (2005)  holds that there is the influence of martial science from China and India in silat. Indeed, not even just that. This could be because dimaklumi the Malay culture (including Pencak Silat) is a culture that is open, which since the beginning of the Malay culture has been adapting to different cultures brought by traders and immigrants from India, Chinese, Arabic, Turkish, and other. Cultures and then berasimilasi adapt to the native culture. So presumably historical Pencak silat is born simultaneously with the emergence of Malay culture. So, each region has generally persilatan the leaders of. For example, the Malay Peninsula, especially in the Malacca believes that the legend of Hang Tuah-century to 14 Silat Pendekar is the greatest.  It is also going on in Java, which boast Gajah Mada.
Development and distribution of Silat a historical record when it began spreading much influenced by the Ulama, seiiring with the spread of Islam in the century to 14 in Indonesia. Historical record is considered authentic in the history of the development of pencak silat which they can still look up to us at this time. At the time Pencak silat has taught along with religious subjects in suraus-suraus. Silat ago to develop a knowledge of martial arts and dance of the people, be part of the educational care for the imperialist countries. Besides, the Pencak Silat also be part of a spiritual exercise. 
Aspects and forms of
Randai Art of the West Sumatra silek (silat) as an element tariannya.
There are 4 main aspects in pencak silat, namely:
1. Mental Spiritual aspects: Pencak silat build and develop the personality and noble character someone. The great teacher and Pendekar pencak silat antiquity often have to go through stages of meditation, Tapa, or other aspects of psychotherapy to achieve the highest level keilmuannya.
2. Aspects of the Arts: Culture and the "art" Pencak Silat is one aspect which is very important. Pencak term generally describes the dance form of art pencak silat, with music and traditional clothing.
3. Aspects of the Martial Arts: Spirituality and self-perseverance is very important in the science of self-care in Pencak Silat. Silat term, tend to emphasize the technical aspects of the ability of self-care Pencak Silat.
4. Aspect Sports: This means that the physical aspect in the pencak silat is important. Pesilat mind trying to adjust it to the body. Competition is the aspect of this. Aspects of the game include sports demonstrations and forms moment, both for single or double shift.
Forms of Pencak Silat and padepokannya (where berlatihnya) different from one another, according to the aspects that are emphasized. Many find the flow of the original observation of wild animals on the fracas. Silat-silat tiger and monkey is an example of stream-flow is. Adapula which holds that aspects of self-care and exercise, both physical and respiratory, is the beginning of the development of silat. Aspects of exercise and self-care aspects of this is to make Pencak silat has become famous in Europe.
However, many argued that the specifics of the Pencak Silat terhilangkan, or dipermudah, while pencak silat to join the world of sports. Therefore, some practitioners still silat focus on spiritual or traditional forms of Pencak Silat, and does not follow the rules of membership and adopted by Persilat, as the organization pencak silat world.