11 Januari 2009

Majapahit Kingdom

Majapahit was an ancient kingdom in Indonesia, which had stood from 1293 until around 1500 M. This kingdom reached the peak of power in the kejayaannya Hayam Wuruk, in power from 1350 until 1389. Majapahit the other kingdoms in the peninsula Malaya, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali and the Philippines.

The History of Majapahit

After Singhasari drive away from Sriwijaya overall in the year 1290, Singhasari become the most powerful kingdom in the region. This is a concern Kubilai Khan, the Yuan Dynasty in China. He send messengers called Chi Meng to the demands Singhasari tribute. Kertanagara, the kingdom last Singhasari, refused to pay tribute and mempermalukan messenger with damage to face and ears cut off. Kublai Khan angry and then dispatch of troops to Java year 1293.

Then, Jayakatwang, duke Kediri, Kertanagara have been killed. Aria Wiraraja above suggestions, give clemency to Jayakatwang Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara daughter, who came resign. Raden Wijaya and Drag given forest. He opened the forest and build a new village. The village is named Majapahit, whose name was taken from the fruit maja, and the feeling of "bitter" the fruit of it. When the troops arrived Mongolia, Wijaya allied with the Mongolian army to battle against Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya turn the associate Mongolnya force so that they return home pasukannya interesting is chaotic because they are in foreign territory. When it is also the last opportunity for them to catch wind muson to be able to return home, or they must be forced to wait six months in a foreign island.

Date used as the definitive date of birth of the kingdom of Majapahit was penobatan as king Raden Wijaya, namely on 10 November 1293. He dinobatkan with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. Kingdom of this problems. Some people trusted Kertarajasa, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled melawannya, although the rebellion was not successful. Slamet Muljana suspect that mahapatih Halayudha the ones who do all the conspiracy to topple the king's trusted, so that he can reach the highest positions in government. However, after the death of the last (Kuti), Halayudha arrested and dipenjara, and then die. Wijaya died in the year 1309.

Children and the successor Wijaya, Jayanegara, is the ruler of evil and unscrupulous. He digelari Kala Gemet, which means "weak villain." In the year 1328, Jayanegara killed by tabibnya, Tanca. Mother tirinya namely Gayatri Rajapatni should replace it, but choose Rajapatni step down from the palace and become a priestess. Rajapatni appoint Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi daughter to become the queen of Majapahit. During the power Tribhuwana, Majapahit kingdom developed into a large and more famous in the area. Majapahit Tribhuwana the death of his mother until the year 1350. It was forwarded by her son, Hayam Wuruk.

Majapahit glory

Hayam Wuruk, also called Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit from 1350 until 1389. At the time, Majapahit kejayaannya culminate with the help mahapatihnya, Gajah Mada. Under the direction of the Gajah Mada (1313-1364), Majapahit over more areas. In the year 1377, several years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit unleash attacks Palembang to the sea, the failure remnant Sriwijaya kingdom. The other is famous Majapahit Adityawarman, renowned as penaklukannya in Minangkabau.

According Kakawin Nagarakretagama pupuh XIII-XV, the power of Majapahit cover Sumatra, Malaya peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, Papua, and some islands of the Philippines . However, the limits of nature and the economy shows that the areas of power did not seem to be centralized under the authority of Majapahit, but terhubungkan one another by trade may be the monopoly by the king. Majapahit also have relationships with coarse, Cambodia, Siam, the southern part of Burma, and Vietnam, and even send-dutanya ambassador to China.

The fall of Majapahit

After reaching its peak in 14-century, Majapahit power gradually weakened. Seems to happen war (War Paregreg) in the years 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. Similarly, the turnover has been a king who dipertengkarkan in the year 1450-an, and been a major rebellion by a nobleman in the year 1468.

In a tradition kronogram or candrasengkala that sounds sirna ilang kretaning earth. Sengkala this year is perhaps the end of Majapahit and should be read as 0041, the year 1400 Saka, or 1478 BC. Sengkala meaning is "earth sirna hilanglah prosperity." However, the actual described by candrasengkala is gugurnya Bre Kertabumi, the king of Majapahit to-11, by Girindrawardhana .

When Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and the carrier has begun to enter the religious archipelago. At the end of the century and the early-14-15 th century, the Majapahit in the entire archipelago start decreasing. At the same time, a kingdom of trade based on the new religion of Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began appearing in the western part of the archipelago .

Note the history of Chinese, Portuguese, Italian and indicates that there has been movement of power from the hands of Majapahit Hindu ruler to hand Adipati Unus, the Sultanate of Demak, between the years 1518 and 1521 M

Majapahit Kingdom is the last Hindu kingdom in the Malay peninsula and is considered as one of the largest country in the history of Indonesia. in his outward Sumatra, Malaya peninsula, east of Borneo and Indonesia, even though his area is still debated.

2 komentar:

  1. Indonesia History is hard to prove of authenticity.Especially about Maja Pahit kingdom and they power over the islands in Indonesia.